Learning learnr

  learnr, internship

  Nischal Shrestha

“Let us change our traditional attitude to the construction of programs: Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do.”

– Donald Knuth, Literate Programming (1984)

Data scientists engage in and develop tools for literate programming. A variant of Markdown called R Markdown has provided the foundation for several R packages to assist in writing books ( bookdown), blogs/websites ( blogdown, hugodown), scientific reports for the web ( distill) and presentations ( xaringan). The trend with these packages and tools is to take the base R Markdown document and extend it to provide a powerful way to write documents in a simple Markdown format, yet be able to embed complex mixed media such as code, images, videos, and interactive elements to better suit the type of artifact the user wants to create. But, there is yet another level of literate programming that is now possible for instructors who want to make interactive lessons thanks to the learnr package.

For my summer internship, Alison Hill and Greg Wilson initially tasked me with building Python lessons using the learnr package with the caveat that some infrastructure will need to be built. My journey involved a lot of reading and tracing code, as well as consulting Barret Schloerke, who provided me both knowledge about the trees and the forest of learnr. I started making diagrams to describe the architecture and execution flows, and this diagramming activity became a wonderful tool to identify my gaps of knowledge. Every time I came back to my diagrams, I had new knowledge to incorporate, which again opened up new gaps I needed to fill. In this post, I’d like to show you what I’ve learned so far and how I formed a working knowledge of this intricate package; if you’d like to know more about its specific features, please see this post from my fellow intern Ezgi. In the end, I hope to convey the big picture of learnr and the technologies it combines for interactive lessons.

What is learnr?

learnr’s documentation says that:

The learnr package makes it easy to turn any R Markdown document into an interactive tutorial.

For the rest of the post, we’ll refer to the following example of a learnr document called addition.Rmd that only includes an exercise and its hint/checking counterparts. Exercise handling is what I am most familiar with so I won’t cover how questions are handled.

If you have used the base R Markdown, you will be familiar with components such as the YAML header, the setup code, and the knitr code chunks (the triple back-quoted elements). However, the red highlights shown here are the parts where learnr starts to diverge and extend R Markdown in the following ways:

  1. The output is a learnr::tutorial.

  2. The runtime is shiny_prerendered.

  3. There are some learnr-related setup code.

  4. There are knitr chunks which have custom options such as exercise.

These 4 main differences sets learnr apart from the R Markdown that you are probably more familiar with and I’ll refer to these in the next section covering the overall architecture of the package.

Architecture of learnr

“It’s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out your door… You step into the Road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there is no knowing where you might be swept off to.”

– Bilbo Baggins

learnr combines many tech stacks, making it a difficult package to understand and traverse. However, I found a simple way to think about the package that might help you better grasp the technologies involved. learnr can broken down into two main parts: tutorial creation and tutorial interaction. These two parts allowed me to mentally organize how learnr is working under the hood as well as navigate associated R files involved in each part. This was also a pragmatic approach so I could make extensions to the code only where needed. Here is a high level view of these two parts and the technologies involved:

The rmarkdown and knitr packages process and render the document, relying on learnr to extend behavior around knitr chunks and handle question- and exercise-related information. The interactivity is possible on the frontend using the familiar combination of HTML, CSS, and JS. But, there are also a few third-party JS dependencies like the Ace editor, which is an important one because it provides the editor for exercises. The backend R code mainly consists of http handlers responding to stateful events like “Next Topic” and “Start Over”. There is also R code using Shiny for handling events related to evaluating questions and exercises in response to events such as clicking the “Run” button.

From the document perspective, all you need to really know is that learnr turns your Rmd file into an HTML file using pandoc, which I like to think of as the bridge from the tutorial creation to the tutorial interaction side. At this point, you may skip to my reflections on learning learnr so far. But, those who are curious may continue to the nitty-gritty details of what’s really going on under the hood for each side.

Tutorial creation

After you hit “Run document” in RStudio, learnr does some prep work and takes your addition.Rmd file and uses rmarkdown and knitr to process and shape the final document. You can think of R Markdown as “running the show” because it is responsible for rendering the entire Rmd from end-to-end with the help of learnr. learnr helps R Markdown by specifying the custom output via learnr::tutorial, which is a souped-up HTML document. learnr also helps R Markdown by processing the Rmd file and adding code chunk extensions not normally present in regular Rmd files. Finally, learnr uses gradethis to check results for exercises. Before we jump to the interaction side, let’s briefly talk about some details on initialization.

Package and Shiny server initialization

learnr has two main jobs to do before we move on to the interaction side: apply custom behavior for exercises and setup up the Shiny server. Roughly this is what that process looks like:

The knitr package is used by learnr to add the magic of exercises and its support chunks via custom knitr hooks (knitr-hooks.R) that activate during rendering. These custom knitr hooks process the exercises and its options (for e.g., exercise=TRUE) as well as their associated support chunks using label suffixes like -setup for setup code, -check and -solution chunks for checking answers. During this process, learnr creates Shiny prerendered chunks for each code chunk to be included in the HTML document. Finally, learnr has to register http handlers for handling events, and starting the Shiny server.

We are now ready to cross the bridge to the interaction side!

Tutorial interaction

Brace yourself for this next one:

Crossing the bridge over to interaction, the student can now see and interact with the tutorial, which is an HTML document. rmarkdown produced this document by using a custom output defined by a function in learnr, learnr::tutorial. learnr tutorials are designed to be interactive documents and are better thought of as specialized Shiny apps, not as static documents. This is why you cannot knit a learnr Rmd document into arbitrary formats such as a PDF.

This HTML document you see here is special because it is actually a type of Shiny app using the shiny_rendered runtime. The Shiny prerendered runtime means that some of the code are normally rendered with rmarkdown (render context), while other code execute when the tutorial is served (server context). This is done for performance reasons which you can read more about here. All you need to know here is that the Shiny prerendered scripts included in the HTML will be used to retrieve Shiny reactive values from the backend side (exercise.R). For stateful events such as “Start Over” or “Next Topic” button clicks, the tutorial.js will respond to these and notify http-handlers.R to make changes to the internal state of the tutorial or record events for logging.

Evaluating exercises

When it comes time to evaluating an exercise, exercise.R goes, “I’m going to take all of the code text submitted for this exercise and evaluate it in an isolated R file and the environment it needs. Then, I’ll use knitr to produce the properly formatted regular Markdown that rmarkdown can render, and set the results for the Shiny reactive value.”

The Shiny code within exercise.R then responds with, “Great! You have given me an html output for the exercise, I’ll let the frontend know so it can be appended.”

Here’s the script tag in the HTML document that makes this interaction cycle possible:

<script type="application/shiny-prerendered" data-context="server">
    `tutorial-exercise-addition-result` <- learnr:::setup_exercise_handler(reactive(req(input$`tutorial-exercise-addition-code-editor`)), session)
    output$`tutorial-exercise-addition-output` <- renderUI({

It essentially sets up the exercise handler and the Shiny function renderUI to retrieve html output after evaluating the exercise. Ultimately, the output is appended under the exercise, which could be code output from clicking the “Run” button or some feedback from clicking the “Submit Answer” button.


Daniel Chen had mentioned in his reflection last summer that he turned from a “a user of the R language” to a “developer”. I would say I feel the same way so far. Although I knew how to use R packages, it wasn’t until I had to venture into learnr that I realized that developing packages is a whole different ball game! From a developer’s perspective, it has been a lot of fun making improvements to learnr because building and debugging the package is very fast and allows quick build-test cycles. I also wouldn’t have made it this far without the guidance of Alison and Greg with setting goals for each week and making sure I’m enjoying the work as well. Barret has also been a tremendous help whenever I am stuck on a problem and I’m reminded how great it is to gain tacit knowledge from an expert. I now understand when to use vectorized operations in R such as vapply over a for loop–thanks Barret!

From my learning of learnr, I’ve been able to make two pull requests adding enhancements to learnr. PR #373 was my first easy task which involved allowing the instructor to suppress a confusing warning message about “invisible result”. This PR gave me a good idea of the learnr package execution flow. PR #390 was a much more difficult one which adds support for chaining setup chunks, which can alleviate the tedious process of building up setup code for incremental exercises as voiced by many (see issue #72). It was by far one of the most technical challenges I’ve had to tackle so far, but I am very excited to say that this particular PR also paves the way for a cleaner approach on non-R exercises by changing how we process exercises. But, that’s for another post!

Although we are not there yet to make Python lessons in learnr, I look forward to adding more infrastructure to make this a reality—eventually.